Category Archives: Physical Therapy

8 Ways To Improve Balance and Decrease Falls

Posted May 11, 2018 by FIT Physical Therapy

Balance problems and a fear of falling are a big concern for many. They can make simple but vital daily activities such as walking, dressing, and bathing very difficult, if not impossible. Furthermore, balance problems put people on a path of significant muscle loss, frailty and loss of independence. Nursing homes and long-term care facilities are filled with people who have lost their ability to be safe and live independently. Emergency departments and hospitals see many who have fallen and sustained serious injury.  Fortunately there is help. Physical Therapists trained in balance and vestibular therapy can do much to help improve balance, prevent falls and preserve strength, function and independence.

A team approach between therapists, medical doctors and audiologists trained in balance and inner ear disorders is important to accurately identify the causes of balance loss and design a customized treatment program. Balance problems are best addressed on an individual basis because there can be numerous causes of balance loss.  There are also numerous treatment options and they must match the cause of the balance loss to be effective.

Physical therapists are trained to evaluate multiple systems of the body, including the muscles, joints, inner ear, eye tracking ability, skin sensation, and position awareness in the joints (proprioception).

Here are 8 specific ways physical therapy can help balance and dizziness problems:

1. Reduce Fall Risk
Your physical therapist will assess problem footwear and hazards in your home that increase your risk of balance problems or falling. Household hazards include loose rugs, poor lighting, unrestrained pets, or other possible obstacles.

2. Reduce Fear of Falling
By addressing specific problems that are found during the examination, your physical therapist will help you regain confidence in your balance and your ability to move freely, and perform daily activities. As you build confidence in your balance and physical ability, you will be better able to enjoy your normal daily activities.

3. Improve Mobility
Your physical therapist will help you regain the ability to move around with more ease, coordination, and confidence. Your physical therapist will develop an individualized treatment and exercise program to gradually build your strength and movement skills.

4. Improve Balance
Your physical therapist will teach you exercises for both static balance (sitting or standing still) and dynamic balance (keeping your balance while moving). Your physical therapist will progressively increase these exercises as your skills improve.

5. Improve Strength
Your physical therapist will teach you exercises to address muscle weakness, or to improve your overall muscle strength. Strengthening muscles in the trunk, hip, and stomach (i.e., “core”) can be especially helpful in improving balance. Various forms of weight training can be performed with exercise bands, which help avoid joint stress.

6. Improve Movement
Your physical therapist will choose specific activities and treatments to help restore normal movement in any of your joints that are stiff. These might begin with “passive” motions that the physical therapist performs for you, and progress to active exercises that you do yourself.

7. Improve Flexibility and Posture
Your physical therapist will determine if any of your major muscles are tight, and teach you how to gently stretch them. The physical therapist will also assess your posture, and teach you exercises to improve your ability to maintain proper posture. Good posture can improve your balance.

8. Increase Activity Levels
Your physical therapist will discuss activity goals with you, and design an exercise program to address your individual needs and goals. Your physical therapist will help you reach those goals in the safest, fastest, and most effective way possible.

Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy

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Meniscus Tears

Posted April 30, 2018 by FIT Physical Therapy

One of the most commonly injured areas in our knees is called the meniscus. The meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped piece of cartilage that cushions your knee. Each of your knees has 2 menisci (plural of meniscus); one on the inner (medial) part of the knee, and the other on the outer (lateral) part. Together they act to absorb shock and stabilize the knee joint.

A meniscal tear typically is caused by twisting or turning quickly on a bent knee, often with the foot planted on the ground. Although meniscal tears are common in those who play contact sports, anyone at any age can tear a meniscus.

Meniscus tears come in different shapes and sizes and can occur at different locations in the knee. Tears are usually described by where they are located and their appearance (for example, “bucket handle” tear, longitudinal, parrot beak, and transverse). While physical examination may predict whether it is the medial or lateral meniscus that is damaged, a diagnostic procedure, like an MRI can locate the specific part of the cartilage that is torn and how it appears.

Because there is different blood supply to each part of the meniscus, knowing where the tear is located may help decide how easily an injury might heal (with or without surgery). The better the blood supply, the better the potential for recovery.

If you are older and your meniscus is worn, you may not know what you did to cause the tear. You may only remember feeling pain after you got up from a squatting position, for example.  Pain and slight swelling are often the only symptoms.

Your health care provider may diagnose a torn meniscus, but meniscal injuries can very often be managed without surgery. A short course of treatment provided by a physical therapist can help determine whether your knee will recover without surgery. The physical therapist plays an important role by controlling pain and swelling and by restoring full strength and mobility to your knee.

Patients with more serious meniscal tears, or those that don’t respond to a course of physical therapy, may need surgery. Surgically removing the torn cartilage (a procedure called a menisectomy) usually is a simple procedure that requires a brief course of physical therapy treatment after surgery.  Most people are able to return to their previous level of activity, including sports, in fewer than 2 months.

Sometimes the surgeon will decide that the torn meniscus can be repaired, instead of removed. Research studies show that if a meniscal repair is possible, the long-term outcome is better than removal because the repair can reduce the risk of arthritis later in life.

Rehabilitation following a meniscal repair is slower and more extensive than with removal because the repaired tissue must be protected while it is healing. The type of surgical technique performed, the extent of your injury, and the preferences of the surgeon often determine how quickly you will be able to put weight on the leg, stop using crutches, and return to your previous activities.

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Do You Have Text Neck

Posted March 1, 2018 by FIT Physical Therapy

Do You Have Text Neck

Chances are you’re reading this while leaning over a table or slumped back in a chair. Your head is tilted forward, your shoulders are curved.
If you’re on a mobile device, your arms are bent by your side and your back hunch is even more profound.
Am I right?

We’ll that body position you are in now may be the cause of current and/or future orthopedic problems, especially in your neck.
We spend a lot of time each day with our devices. Cell phones, tablets, computers etc. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, 8- to 18-year-olds spends an average of seven and a half hours using “entertainment media” every day.
But it’s not just kids. The average amount of data used on a smartphone tripled from 2010 to 2011, according to Cisco’s Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update. And each tablet generates 3.4 times more traffic than the average smartphone.
A recent study published in Surgical Technology International’s 25th edition says texting may be hurting your neck. Conducted by New York spine surgeon Kenneth Hansraj, the study found that bending your head to look at your mobile device held in your hands can put up to 60 pounds of pressure on your neck.

Hansraj’s study includes illustrations of what happens when mobile users bend their heads at at 15, 30, 45 and 90 degrees to look at their devices. He advises users be cognizant of their bodies.
“We recommend that people should continue to enjoy their smart devices, but that they pay specific attention to where their head is in space,” Hansraj told the Huffington Post. “You want to be careful that your head is straight up with you’re using a smart device.”

The average human head weighs 10 pounds in a neutral position — when your ears are over your shoulders. For every inch you tilt your head forward, the pressure on your spine doubles. So if you’re looking at a smartphone in your lap, your neck is holding up what feels like 20 or 30 pounds.
All that extra pressure puts a strain on your spine and can pull it out of alignment. Dr. Tom DiAngelis, former president of the American Physical Therapy Association’s Private Practice Section, compared it to bending your finger back all the way and holding it there for an hour.

“As you stretch the tissue for a long period of time, it gets sore, it gets inflamed,” DiAngelis said. “The real question … is ‘What are the long term effects going to be?’
In physical therapy we label this problem as “forward head posture”. Over time it leads to muscle strain, disc herniations and pinched nerves. It can also reverse the natural curve of your neck.
The other problem, less often recognized is the lack of oxygen taken in our bodies through this forward head posture.
Try to take a deep breath in a slumped position. Now sit up straight and try again. Experts say slouching can reduce the capacity of your lungs by as much as 30%!

Here are a few tips to avoid problems when using our devices:
Keep your feet flat on the floor, roll your shoulders back and keep your ears directly over them so your head isn’t tilted forward. Use a docking station and wrist guards to support the weight of a mobile device. Buy a headset.
Take frequent breaks while using any mobile device or desktop computer. About every 20 minutes, stand up, roll your shoulders and neck or go for a short walk to improve blood flow.

Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy

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Sleep Hygiene Education

Posted January 30, 2018 by FIT Physical Therapy

The question: How is your health and how is your sleep, can almost be one and the same.  One of the most important aspects of health that is often overlooked is sleep. Sleep is rejuvenating and essential for our bodies to function well. Sleep has an important role in the proper functioning of most if not all of our body systems. Sleep is critical for immune function, tissue healing, pain modulation, cardiovascular health, cognitive function and learning and memory.  Conversely, without adequate sleep people can experience an increase in many negative things such as pain, anxiety, depression, as well as decreased focus, function and increased risk for accidents. If you have problems with sleeping you are not alone. Sleep disturbances occur in one third of the U.S. population
With our patients undergoing physical therapy we often talk to them about their sleep. For those patients who struggle with getting a good nights rest we offer the following sleep hygiene tips from the National Sleep foundation: See
  1. Go to sleep and wake up at the same time every day.  This will help set your natural biological clock.  Exposure to bright natural light when you first wake up is also helpful to set your natural biological clock
  2. Use your bed for only sleep and sexual activity to help train your brain that if you are in your bed, you should be sleeping.  Leave the bed if unable to fall asleep within 20 minutes and return when sleepy.  If unable to leave the bed due to limited mobility or safety concerns, do something relaxing (i.e., relaxation techniques) until sleepy and able to fall to sleep.
  3. Develop a relaxing bedtime routine.  This may include taking a warm bath, reading a book, meditation or stretching.  Avoid stimulating activities right before bedtime, include watching TV or discussing a stressful topic.
  4. Avoid moderate to vigorous exercise at least 2/3 hours before betimes.  Exercising immediately before bedtime stimulates your body and brain, making it hard to fall asleep.  There is evidence however that doing regular (preferably moderate to vigorous) exercise improves your sleep at night.  Talk to your physical therapist about an appropriate exercise program.
  5. Avoid caffeinated foods and drinks at least 4 hours before bedtime (Includes most tea, coffee, chocolate and soft drinks) Check the presence of caffeine in your drink or food by reading the label.  Caffeine can cause difficulty falling asleep and increase the number of times you wake up during the night.
  6. Refrain from drinking alcohol or smoking at least 3 to 4 hours before bedtime.  Although people may think drinking alcohol causes relaxation before betimes it can actually increase the number of times you wake up during the night and can cause you to wake up early.  Nicotine in cigarettes acts as a stimulant that can cause difficulty falling asleep.
  7. Do not take prescribed or over the counter sleeping pills.
  8. Avoid daytime napping so that you are tired at night and can fall asleep easily.  If you feel you need to take a nap, limit the nap to 30 minutes and avoid napping in the evening.
  9. Make your sleeping environment comfortable and relaxing.  This includes avoiding too much light and disturbing noises.  Stop using light emitting electronics (ie, television, computer, smartphone) at least 30 minutes before bedtime as the blue light that is emitted can disrupt sleep by suppressing melatonin production.  Use ear plugs, light blocking curtains, or an eye mask if needed.  Also, keep the temperature comfortable.  Being too warm or cold may disrupt your sleep.  Also, use a comfortable and supportive pillow and mattress.
  10. Avoid eating a large meal or spicy food 2-3 hours before going to bed.  Your digestive system slows down while you are sleeping, which can stimulate acid secretion that cause heartburn.  A light snack may be helpful if you are hungry.  Avoid excessive liquid 2-3 hours before bedtime.
  11. Talk to your doctor or health professional if you still have trouble sleeping.

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Rest and Recovery

Posted December 19, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy

Do you know someone who exercises often but does not seem to be getting very good results? The reason may be because exercise, no matter good and helpful, is only a small part of an overall healthy lifestyle. Think about it this way. Even those who exercise daily for over an hour, spend less than 5% of their total time actually exercising. So what about the other 95% of the time? How you rest and recover during the non-exercising time is as important if not more important than the exercise itself.  If you are not quite getting the results you want from your exercise program, here are 6 tips to consider.

1. Stretching:
Stretching is an important part of recovery, but it rarely receives the time or attention it deserves. The purpose of stretching is to maintain the flexibility of tissues that are tight or stiff from an activity or prolonged position.
There are a variety of methods of stretching (using the hamstring muscle as an example):
Static/Isolated Stretching: Static, or isolated stretching is holding a stretch position for a long period.  (Example: A static hamstring stretch would be when you sit on the ground with one leg pointing outward and you simply reach for your toes and hold for at least 30 seconds.)

Dynamic stretching: Dynamic stretching is using movement to combine muscle groups. (Example: A dynamic stretch for the hamstring would be walking toe touches, as you bend down and grab your toe with every step for 2 to 3 seconds.)

Foam Rolling: Foam rolling is a type of self-mobilization and massage. (Example: To foam-roll the hamstring muscle, you will simply put a foam roller under your legs and let your weight rest on top so the foam roller will push out any knots in your hamstring.)

A very general rule for stretching is dynamic stretching before exercise, static stretching after exercise, and foam rolling throughout. Utilizing various stretching strategies will allow you to maintain and improve your mobility.

2. Refueling—Nutrition and Hydration
Proper fueling before exercise is important to optimize performance, but nutrition for recovery from exercise is often overlooked. Our bodies rely upon a well-balanced array of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals to aid in rebuilding the parts of our body that have been stressed during exercise. Refueling after a workout with a well-rounded set of carbohydrates, proteins, and healthy fats will help your body reap the most benefit from your hard effort.
Water is also absolutely essential to overall health. In particular, following exercise, proper hydration is key to replace the fluids that you have lost during your activity. Water also helps regulate your temperature, maintain healthy joints, and eliminate wastes that build up in your system during activity. Pay special attention to your total water intake if you are exercising in extreme hot or cold climates or if you feel as though you may be getting sick. Make a habit of keeping a water bottle in your purse, gym bag, car, or workplace for easy, reliable access.

RICE stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. If you find yourself having pain or swelling following exercise, particularly in a joint like your knee, ankle, or shoulder, you may consider using this four-part strategy to decrease inflammation and pain. If you continue to have symptoms several days following a workout, it may be important to seek the advice of a healthcare provider to further examine your complaints.

4. Listen To Your Body
The only person who knows how your body feels after a workout is you. Allow yourself to listen to your body, and appropriately. This includes recognizing the signs of fatigue, pain or soreness and increasing recovery time between exercise bouts. This may also mean pushing yourself to work harder when you feel well. Don’t succumb to peer pressure at the gym. Trust yourself and what your body is telling you. When you are starting a new exercise program, don’t be afraid to ask your physical therapist for helpful hints on how your body may give you feedback after exercise, and how you should respond to that information.

5. Cross Training
Even if you love to run, your body may not like you running seven days a week. No matter what your exercise of choice may be (walking, running, swimming, cycling, weightlifting, yoga, recreational sports, etc.), you may benefit from finding another form of exercise.
Cross training is simply about challenging your body with different tasks so that certain tissues are not over-stressed, which often leads to overuse injuries. For example, a swimmer will benefit from strength training in addition to the hours spent in the pool in order to build different muscle groups and allow momentary rest for those that are used repetitively in the pool. Remember to do the exercises your body needs, not just the exercises you want to do.

6. Sleeping
Often taken for granted, sleep is your body’s prime opportunity to recover.
When the body is at rest, the repair of our muscular, cardiovascular, skeletal, and immune systems can go to work. The CDC recommends that, in general, teens have 9-10 hours and adults 7-8 hours of sleep each day. These guidelines are especially important if you are demanding more of your body through regular exercise or stressful daily activities.

To get the most out of your shut-eye, strive for consistent bedtimes, avoid stimulating activities in bed (like TV and electronic devices), and a comfortable environment. You may find that you sleep better on days that you exercise, and will definitely notice a more effective, pleasant exercise experience if you are giving your body the rest it needs and deserves.

Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy


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 Balance Doesn’t have to Slip Away

Posted November 10, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy

 Balance Doesn’t have to Slip Away

You wobble slightly stepping off a curb, and then down you go. It happens fast, and leaves you to wonder what happened to that great sense of balance you used to have. Balance doesn’t stay steady throughout life. Like muscles and bones, steadiness can deteriorate if not maintained. And balance training just isn’t part of most workouts.
Balance is often something most people don’t think about. That is, until a slip, trip or fall happens. Maintaining balance is easy for most younger people, but as we age our bodies loses muscle mass (about 1% a year starting after middle age) and bone mass. And senses involved with balance start to dull too as we get older: vision as well as senses of touch, pressure and proprioception (the sense of body placement and how it moves through space).
Certain medications can affect balance too. And the end result can be serious: Falls in older people can result in a broken hip, which, in turn, can trigger a downward spiral into dependence and ill health. Even a fear of falling can keep someone housebound for months leading to feelings of loneliness and depression.

Skills such as timing and coordination that are involved in balance are learned and practiced and honed. The more we sit, the more those skills erode. The old adage: “Use it or lose it” certainly applies to our balance.
But balance can be shored up, even in very old age. A 2007 study in the journal Osteoporosis International looked at the effect of a yearlong balance training program on women with osteoporosis. By the end of the study, the women’s functional and static balance improved, as did mobility. Falling frequency also declined.

Another study in the International Journal of Rehabilitation Research in 2010 found that elderly people enrolled in an eight-week balance or weight training program were less likely to slip and were more likely to recover if they did slip.
Balance training starts with stretching and strengthening all the muscles in the body. To do the activities of daily living as they relate to balance — walking down the stairs, getting in and out of the bathtub — is really about maintaining good muscle movement and strength. This can be done with an overall weight training program. For those who haven’t been to the gym in a while — or ever — that training should start with the basics and get progressively more difficult so that the muscles are always challenged.

When it comes to balance-specific training, your ultimate goal is to be able to maintain your balance in tricky situations.  In Physical Therapy when we have a patient with poor balance skills, we will start off with safe floor exercises, then progress to standing on two feet, then on one leg. As a patient progresses the exercises also progress thus always providing the challenging effect that must be present for balance to improve. Balance training almost always involves targeting core muscles — the ones surrounding the trunk and the back, as well as our powerful and important leg and hip muscles.

People who want to advance their balance training can invest in equipment such as balance pads, therapy balls and discs. These objects are wobbly when stood on or sat upon — can be used without any other equipment, or with light weights or other gear for even more demanding workouts. Just doing a simple squat or a soft cushion offers great balance training.

Even cardio workouts should involve some instability. Elliptical trainers, stationary bikes and other cardio machines may raise the heart rate sufficiently, but they always offer an even, steady surface — and that does precious little for preserving someone’s balance. Taking a class, playing a sport, or walking, running or cycling outside on a variety of surfaces force the body to travel in more planes of movement and are more challenging to our balance systems and thus much more effective at improving balance.

Pilates and yoga can help develop balance as well. These methods of exercise are particularly good at improving balance because they help improve body awareness, improve flexibility and strength.
For individuals who have had falls, or are at a risk of falling, a supervised balance program designed by a physical therapist trained in balance and vestibular therapy is appropriate.

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AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill

Posted October 10, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy

As a licensed physical therapist and CEO and founder of Fit Physical Therapy, one of the things I try to do to make sure we are practicing cutting-edge physical therapy in our clinics is to look at what the top universities and professional sports teams across the country are using to rehab their injured players.

I have had the opportunity to visit some high-end training facilities and always make a point of checking out the equipment and techniques the trainers and therapists are using on their athletes.

Because there is huge money involved in athletic performance, it stands to reason that when a key athlete goes down, the owners, trainers and therapists working with these athletes will use the very best therapy and rehab equipment at their disposal to help get their injured athletes healthy and back in action as soon as possible.

One piece of equipment that is found in nearly every major college and professional sports team training room is the AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill. Many big-time athletes have used this treadmill to speed their recovery and healing.

I was so impressed with this treadmill that I purchased the first AlterG in Southern Utah for our St. George clinic. It has been so successful we hope to add one to our Mesquite clinic soon.

The technology for the AlterG Treadmill was originally developed at NASA as part of an effort to help astronauts maintain fitness during prolonged space flight. AlterG combined this technology with an advanced pressure regulation system and a treadmill to produce the first anti-gravity treadmill. AlterG is the first company to use a pressurized enclosure to provide a counter force to the person’s body weight, reducing their effective weight on the treadmill surface.

The AlterG treadmill looks a little intimidating at first but is actually surprisingly simple to set up and use. The first step is to get into a funny-looking fitted pair of neoprene shorts that has an upper skirt which zippers into a plastic casing, forming an airtight environment. As you stand on the treadmill, it calibrates the machine to your exact weight.

The machine’s plastic casing around the treadmill fills with air and uses its unweighting technology to create a reduced pressure environment from 0 to 80 percent unloading of your body. This means that if you you weigh 200 pounds, you could feel as light as 40 pounds on the treadmill. You then walk or run in the unweighted environment.

The AlterG can be utilized by both athletes and the general population and can assist in rehabilitation post-injury or post-surgery. It is perfect for individuals who suffer from a lower extremity injury, like an ACL reconstruction, hip, foot or ankle injury.

Whether someone is post-operative or trying to prevent surgery, the AlterG can be used to reduce the impact on joints to provide both strength and aerobic conditioning. Even stroke patients can benefit as the treadmill can help retrain their legs and brain with supported movements.

Noninjured athletes have also found ways to utilize the AlterG before and after endurance events. Runners might consider an AlterG run to log a few miles without the impact before a marathon or conversely as a tool for recovery after a long race.

But for runners facing months of injury rehabilitation without logging any miles, the AlterG provides a way to move again – stimulating both the muscles and the mind toward recovery.

For more information about the amazing AlterG Treadmill go to the AlterG website or visit our St. George clinic for a free demonstration.

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Is your “Physical Therapist” really doing “Physical Therapy”?

Posted September 25, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy

Recently an acquaintance asked if I had heard about the new physical therapy clinic that had just opened up. I replied that I had not and was curious to find out a little more about a new colleague in town. Turns out, the “Doctor” at this clinic is not a physical therapist, nor is his “Kinesiologist” assistant. But in some of their advertising and promotions they stated that they provide “physical therapy” services. Unfortunately the misuse or inappropriate advertisement of physical therapy services is a growing problem.

It’s too bad that there are a few health care providers who feel the need to operate using vague or general titles or they encroach upon other professional titles and designations such as the new “physical therapy” clinic in town.
The following is a good explanation of this issue from The American Physical Therapy Association.

“People who are not licensed physical therapists have held themselves out to the public as providing “physical therapy” or “physiotherapy,” or use the initials “PT” to describe their services. This characterization is misleading to the public, illegal in some states, and a disservice to individuals who are in need of physical therapy and who think they are receiving it, but in reality are not.

When the public receives treatment such as physical therapy, people deserve to know what treatment they are receiving and that the person performing the treatment is a licensed physical therapist (PT) who has the requisite education and training to provide the treatment.

Massage therapists, chiropractors, personal trainers, or health care practitioners may share some of the same treatment modalities or techniques that also are used by physical therapists; however, an intervention should only be described or advertised as physical therapy or physiotherapy when provided or supervised by a licensed physical therapist.

Physical therapy is not a generic term. It describes the care and services provided by or under the direction of a licensed physical therapist. Other health care providers have attempted to classify physical agents, mechanical modalities, and/or electrotherapy as “physical therapy” or “physiotherapy.” The use of these modalities can be described as the practice of physical therapy only when a licensed physical therapist provides the modalities. Some professions may use some of the same physical agents and modalities as physical therapists, but only physical therapists and physical therapist assistants under the direction and supervision of physical therapists practice “physical therapy.”

What makes the terms physical therapy and physiotherapy exclusive to the physical therapy profession is the distinct education of physical therapists, the special body of knowledge of the physical therapy profession, the regulatory standards and requirements for licensure as a physical therapist, and the unique perspective, specific skills, practice standards, and specialized care that are provided by licensed physical therapists.

The patient/client management elements of examination, evaluation, diagnosis, and prognosis should be represented and reimbursed as physical therapy only when they are performed by a physical therapist. Physical therapists are the only professionals who provide physical therapy examinations, evaluations, diagnoses, prognoses, and interventions based on the physical therapist’s examination and evaluative process. Intervention should be represented and reimbursed as physical therapy only when performed by a physical therapist or under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist.

The rationale behind term protection generally relates to the protection afforded to consumers and patients. Specifically, state regulatory bodies are often concerned that an individual or entity that is not properly qualified to provide physical therapy services may, for example, advertise or represent that physical therapy services are being provided, when in fact there is no physical therapist involved in the provision of services. A consumer also may mistakenly believe that someone using the initials “PT” is a licensed physical therapist, when in fact they are not.

In addition to consumer protection issues, term protection also seeks to address concerns relative to third party payers. For example, third party payers who bundle physical therapy benefits with those of other health care professionals may, depending on the time a service is provided, offer a “physical therapy” benefit that is in fact exhausted before the patient ever sees a licensed physical therapist. Additionally, allowing nonphysical therapists to use terms such as “physical therapy” may result in a payer reimbursing for a service that it believes to be physical therapy when in fact there is no physical therapist involved in the provision of services.
The protection of the terms physical therapy and physiotherapy is not referring to protection against the use of various physical agents, modalities, or procedures by others, but rather is against the inappropriate labeling of those modalities and procedures as physical therapy”.
Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy

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Posted August 28, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy

It’s estimated that as many as 75% of us will have some form of back or neck pain at some point in our lifetime. The good news is that most of us will recover without the need for surgery—and conservative care such as physical therapy usually gets better results than surgery. Degenerative disk disease (DDD) is one cause of back and neck pain. Usually the result of the natural aging process, degenerative disk disease (DDD) is a type of osteoarthritis of the spine.

Your spine is made up of 33 vertebrae that are stacked on top of one another. Between each of these vertebrae is a rubbery piece of cartilage called an “intervertebral disk. Imagine the disk as a tire, with gelatin filling the hole in the tire. The tire is called the “annulus,” and the gelatin is called the “nucleus.” When we’re young—under 30 years of age—the disk is made mostly of gelatin. As we age, and sometimes with injury or excessive wear and tear, we start to lose some of that gelatin, and the volume of the disk decreases, resulting in less space between the vertebrae. The disk becomes flatter and less flexible, leaving less space between each set of vertebrae. Sometimes bone spurs form in response to this degeneration of the disk, making the spine stiff. When the rough surfaces of the vertebral joints rub together, pain and inflammation may result. Nerves may become irritated or compressed.

Disk degeneration might occur throughout several regions of the spine, or it might be limited to one disk. When it’s part of the natural aging process, the degeneration does not always lead to pain. For some people, however, it can cause a great deal of pain and disability.You are more likely to develop DDD if you smoke, are overweight, do physical work or don’t get very much exercise.

You might have mild to intense neck and back pain—or no pain at all. A degenerative disk in the neck can cause pain in the arm, shoulder or neck. A degenerative disk in the low back might cause pain in the back, buttocks or legs. The pain is often made worse by sitting, bending, and reaching. It may be worse first thing in the morning and after staying in any one position for a long time. In severe cases, when DDD results in pressure on the nerves, it can lead to numbness, tingling, and even weakness in the arms or legs.

If you have muscle weakness and loss of sensation or very severe pain, special diagnostic tests, such as x-rays, or MRI’s may be needed. Physical therapists work closely with physicians and other health care providers to make certain that an accurate diagnosis is made and the appropriate treatment is provided.
Research shows that in all but the most extreme cases (usually involving muscle weakness or high levels of pain), conservative care, such as physical therapy, has better results than surgery.
After the evaluation, if your therapist suspects you have DDD and there are no major medical problems, treatment can begin right away.

Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy

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Runners Knee

Posted July 28, 2017 by FIT Physical Therapy


If you are a runner, an athlete, or just fairly active and have developed pain around the front of your knee you may be suffering from Runner’s knee, or what the medical world calls Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).

Patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to pain at the front of the knee, in and around the kneecap. (The kneecap, or patella, is the triangle-shaped bone at the front of the knee joint. The pain usually is accompanied by tenderness along the edges of the patella.

PFPS often occurs in people who are physically active or who have suddenly increased their level of activity, especially when that activity involves repeated knee motion such as running, stair climbing, squatting, or repeated carrying of heavy loads. If you are older, you might have age-related changes that cause the cartilage on the under-surface of the patella to wear out. The result is pain and difficulty completing even the simplest daily tasks without pain.

Usually, patellofemoral pain is worse when you walk up or down hills or stairs and on uneven surfaces. This pain tends to increase with activity and improve with rest. You also may feel pain after sitting for long periods of time with the knee bent or occasionally hear or feel a “cracking” or “popping” when you bend or straighten your knee.

Current research indicates that PFPS is an “overuse syndrome,” which means that it may result from repetitive or excessive use of the knee. Other contributing causes may include:

  • Weakness, tightness, or stiffness in the muscles around the knee
  • An abnormality in the way the lower leg lines up with the hip, knee, and foot
These conditions can interfere with the ability of the patella to glide smoothly on the femur (the bone that connects the knee to the thigh) during movement. The friction between the under-surface of the patella and the femur causes the pain and irritation commonly seen in PFPS.

If you suspect you have PFPS a visit to your medical doctor and/or physical therapist is advised.
In physical therapy we use certain tests and measures to help diagnosis PFPS. In addition, we observe the alignment of your feet, analyze your walking and running patterns, and test the strength of your hip and thigh muscles to find out whether there is a weakness or imbalance that might be contributing to your pain.
Finally, we check the flexibility of the muscles in your leg, paying close attention to those that attach at the knee. Generally, x-rays are not needed to diagnose PFPS.

No two patients are exactly alike so the key to appropriate treatment is a customized evaluation and treatment program. Some of the treatments that help this condition are:

  • Strengthening exercises targeted at the hip (specifically the abductor and rotator muscles of the buttock and thigh), the knee (specifically the quadriceps femoris muscle, which is located on the front of your thigh and straightens your knee), and the ankle.
  • Stretching exercises for the muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle
  • Taping of the patella to reduce pain and retrain muscles to work efficiently
  • Exercises for improving your performance of activities that have become difficult for you

If the alignment and position of your foot and arch appear to be contributing to your knee pain you may benefit by getting a special shoe insert called an orthosis. The orthosis can decrease the stress to your knee caused by excessive rotation or impact during walking and running.

PFPS is much easier to treat if it is caught early. Early diagnosis and treatment by a physical therapist may help stop the underlying problem before it gets worse. Your physical therapist also can help you adjust your daily activities and teach you exercises to do at home to strengthen your muscles and bones and help prevent PFPS from recurring.

Darren Marchant, PT,MSPT,OCS
FIT Physical Therapy

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